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“Whether or not these artists were politically motivated, they united as peers, although momentarily, and convened in spaces outside Western centers of power, with the intention of creating alternative artistic structures based on non-hegemonic, transnational networks.”

Publication: “Contingent Solidarities: Pan-Arab Art in the Grip of 1970s National Party Politics,” in Solidarity Must Be Defended, 103-121, edited by Eszter Szakács and Naeem Mohaiemen. Budapest: tranzit.hu; Eindhoven: Van Abbemuseum; Istanbul and Ankara: SALT; New Delhi: Tricontinental, 2023.


Keywords: scholarship, chapter, essay, research, art, exhibitions, biennale, biennial, institutions, networks, exchanges, solidarity, solidarities, capitals, culture, local, global, regional, politics, Ba’ath, Ba’athist, socialist, party, ideology, modernism, oil, embargos, wars, conflicts, violence, Cold War, post-WWII, 20th century, 1970s, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1980, Arabs, Arabism, pan-Arabism, meetings, gatherings, liberation, alternative, grassroots, intellectual, social, cultural, political, history, background, genealogy, origins, international, poster, graphic, exhibition, union, contemporary, modern, artists, festival, congress, Venice, Italy, São Paulo, Brazil, Poland, Romania, France, India, Egypt, Algeria, Baghdad, Iraq, Palestine, South West Asia ("Middle East"), North Africa, Arab world, Third World

Image: Cover of catalogue, Iraqi Pavilion, 1976 Venice Biennial,